Zero-defect manufacturing strategies towards on-line production management for European factories

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Data communication and interoperability
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Data communication between components is essential for the project. End users create data on their shop floor with embedded sensors on the machines, new integrated sensors developed for the project. All these data is propagated in the system with data communication protocols, such as HTTP and AMQP, creating a data stream process in the system. Interoperability between the data communication protocolos and brockers is crucial for a successful result of the data communication of the system. Various data sources work together and use different communication protocols. As a result, all these components and protocols should seamlessly work and their interoperability is what helps them. A message brocker was developed for the project, based on AMQP for data communication. In the initial phases of the project, there were also RESTful APIs that helped in the initial development of the components.

Real-time communication capability

The RESTful API over HTTP has been chosen to fulfil the necessity of sending intermediate or final results to the repository from Z-Modules side, the API utilizes JSON as default exchange format and JWT (JSON Web Token) as authentication mechanisms.
The JWT is a standard that defines a JSON format scheme for exchanging information between various services. JWTs are widely used to authenticate requests in Web Services authentication mechanisms where the client sends an authentication request to the server, the server generates a signed token and returns it to the client which, from that moment on, will use it to authenticate subsequent requests.

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All database schema, communication protocols, security applications of the Z-Fact0r solution are designed to accommodate the scalability of the solution. All technology can be implemented in larger scale projects without major changes. The one difference with dealing with big data is the use of a different database approach, such as MongoDB, which is more suitable for big data analysis.

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Data communication infrastructure
  1. MQTT message broker
  2. RESTful API over HTTP


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To store data from different sources, including the data elaborated by various Z-Modules a Z-Fact0r data repository has been developed.
The first source of data is the temporal machine data coming from machine sensors, to store this data is used Cassandra, a distributed NoSQL DBMS capable to handle large amount of data across many servers and provide high availability.
The following one is used to store others complex and structured production information with the relational DBMS Mysql.
Another data source in the Z-Fact0r context is the output generated by various modules that carry out the analysis result.

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