Business development entails tasks and processes to develop and implement growth opportunities within and between organizations. It is a subset of the fields of business, commerce and organizational theory. Business development is the creation of long-term value for an organization from and for customers, markets, and relationships (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_development). Understanding the needs of current and future customers should be the baseline for business development. There are two main dimensions of business development, exploitation of current resources (continuous improvements) and exploration of new value (disruptive business models).
Flexibility in manufacturing means the ability to deal with slightly or greatly mixed parts, to allow variation in parts assembly and variations in process sequence, change the production volume and change the design of certain product being manufactured.
A lead time is the latency between the initiation and execution of a process. For example, the lead time between the placement of an order and delivery of a new car from a manufacturer (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_time)
In systems engineering, dependability is a measure of a system's availability, reliability, and its maintainability, and maintenance support performance, and, in some cases, other characteristics such as durability, safety and security. In software engineering, dependability is the ability to provide services that can defensibly be trusted within a time-period. This may also encompass mechanisms designed to increase and maintain the dependability of a system or software. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependability)
In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it's also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while satisfying customer expectations. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_(business))
Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO 9000 defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled". This defect prevention in quality assurance differs subtly from defect detection and rejection in quality control, and has been referred to as a shift left as it focuses on quality earlier in the process i.e. to the left of a linear process diagram reading left to right. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_control)
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input. Productivity is a crucial factor in production performance of firms and nations. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity)
Optimisation challenges must be faced along the entire supply chain or value network, involving OEMs, components suppliers, service providers and SMEs. The transparency of customer requirements and value within the value chain is an important driver for optimisation.
Material efficiency is a description or metric which expresses the degree in which raw materials are consumed, incorporated, or wasted, as compared to previous measures in construction / manufacturing projects or physical processes. Making a usable item out of thinner stock than a prior version increases the material efficiency of the manufacturing process. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Material_efficiency)
Waste minimisation is a set of processes and practices intended to reduce the amount of waste produced. By reducing or eliminating the generation of harmful and persistent wastes, waste minimisation supports efforts to promote a more sustainable society. Waste minimisation involves redesigning products and processes and/or changing societal patterns of consumption and production. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_minimisation)
Product life extension aims at increasing the value from invested resources, providing a useful life that is as long as possible, and maximizing profitability over the life cycle of assets. It includes activities such as repair, upgrade, and remanufacture as well as Innovative re-use of equipment
Reuse is the action or practice of using an item, whether for its original purpose (conventional reuse) or to fulfill a different function (creative reuse or repurposing). It should be distinguished from recycling, which is the breaking down of used items to make raw materials for the manufacture of new products. (From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reuse)
The activity intended to restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. (Derived from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maintenance_(technical), Federal Standard 1037C and from MIL-STD-188 and from the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms)
The rebuilding of a product to specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. (From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remanufacturing, Johnson, M. R. & McCarthy I. P. (2014) Product Recovery Decisions within the Context of Extended Producer Responsibility. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 34, 9-28)
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. The recovery of energy from waste materials is often included in this concept. The recyclability of a material depends on its ability to reacquire the properties it had in its original state. (From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling)
Circular approaches where the flows stay within the same sector (for instance, batteries from the electric vehicle sector being reused within that sector, opposed to being reused in the renewable energy generation sector)
Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health)