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Towards circular economy

Material efficiency is a description or metric which expresses the degree in which raw materials are consumed, incorporated, or wasted, as compared to previous measures in construction / manufacturing projects or physical processes.  Making a usable item out of thinner stock than a prior version increases the material efficiency of the manufacturing process.  (from

Waste minimisation is a set of processes and practices intended to reduce the amount of waste produced. By reducing or eliminating the generation of harmful and persistent wastes, waste minimisation supports efforts to promote a more sustainable society. Waste minimisation involves redesigning products and processes and/or changing societal patterns of consumption and production. (from

Co-evolution of products-processes-production systems or ‘industrial symbiosis’ with minimum need of new resources