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Cognitive and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies - machine learning

In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving"  (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence)


Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1 inclusive. It is employed to handle the concept of partial truth, where the truth value may range between completely true and completely false (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuzzy_logic)

Artificial neural networks (ANN) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks and astrocytes that constitute animal brains. The neural network itself is not an algorithm, but rather a framework for many different machine learning algorithms to work together and process complex data inputs.[4] Such systems "learn" to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with any task-specific rules. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_neural_network)

In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA). Genetic algorithms are commonly used to generate high-quality solutions to optimization and search problems by relying on bio-inspired operators such as mutation, crossover and selection. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_algorithm)

A heuristic function, also called simply a heuristic, is a function that ranks alternatives in search algorithms at each branching step based on available information to decide which branch to follow. (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuristic_(computer_science))