On the right horizontal axis of RAMI 4.0 are the hierarchy levels from IEC 62264, the international standards series for enterprise IT and control systems. These hierarchy levels represent the different functionalities within factories or facilities. The IEC 62264 standard is based upon ANSI/ISA-95. To represent the Industry 4.0 environment, these functionalities have been expanded to include work pieces, labeled 'Product', and the connection to the Internet of Things and services, labeled 'Connected World'. (From https://www.isa.org).
Industry 4.0 promotes a less hierarchical approach of lexible systems and machines were functions are distributed through the network. The network can cross company boundaries ('Connected World'). Participants interact across hierarchical levels: participants are able to communicate with each other. Products are part of the network. See also https://www.plattform-i40.de/PI40/Redaktion/EN/Downloads/Publikation/rami40-an-introduction.html