Co-evolution of products-processes-production systems or ‘industrial symbiosis’ with minimum need of new resources

Product life extension aims at increasing the value from invested resources, providing a useful life that is as long as possible, and maximizing profitability over the life cycle of assets. It includes activities such as repair, upgrade, and remanufacture as well as Innovative re-use of equipment

  • Reuse

    Reuse is the action or practice of using an item, whether for its original purpose (conventional reuse) or to fulfill a different function (creative reuse or repurposing). It should be distinguished from recycling, which is the breaking down of used items to make raw materials for the manufacture of new products. (From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reuse)

  • Repair

    The activity intended to restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions.  (Derived from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maintenance_(technical), Federal Standard 1037C and from MIL-STD-188 and from the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms)

  • Remanufacture - upgrade

    The rebuilding of a product to specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts.  (From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remanufacturing, Johnson, M. R. & McCarthy I. P. (2014) Product Recovery Decisions within the Context of Extended Producer Responsibility. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 34, 9-28)

  • Recycle

    Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. The recovery of energy from waste materials is often included in this concept. The recyclability of a material depends on its ability to reacquire the properties it had in its original state. (From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling)

  • Intra-sectoral circularity

    Circular approaches where the flows stay within the same sector  (for instance, batteries from the electric vehicle sector being reused within that sector, opposed to being reused in the renewable energy generation sector)

  • Cross-sectoral circularity

    Circular approaches where the flows go beyond the original sector  (for instance, batteries from the electric vehicle sector being reused in the renewable energy generation sector)[1]