First published in 2015 and best known as the IIRA, this standards-based architectural template and methodology enables Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) system architects to design their own systems based on a common framework and concepts.  (See and in particular


  • RAMI 4.0 Vertical Axis and associated standards

    The items and descriptions are sourced from:

    • ISO/IEC/TR 63306-1 Ed.1.0 - Smart Manufacturing Standards Map (SM2) - Part 1 : Framework
    • Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy -Alignment Report for Reference Architectural Model for Industrie 4.0 / Intelligent Manufacturing System Architecture. Sino-German Industrie 4.0 / Intelligent Manufacturing. Standardisation Sub-Working Group
  • RAMI 4.0 Hierarchy Axis

    On the right horizontal axis of RAMI 4.0 are the hierarchy levels from IEC 62264, the international standards series for enterprise IT and control systems. These hierarchy levels represent the different functionalities within factories or facilities. The IEC 62264 standard is based upon ANSI/ISA-95. To represent the Industry 4.0 environment, these functionalities have been expanded to include work pieces, labeled 'Product', and the connection to the Internet of Things and services, labeled 'Connected World'.  (From  

    Industry 4.0 promotes a less hierarchical approach of lexible systems and machines were functions are distributed through the network.   The network can cross company boundaries ('Connected World'). Participants interact across hierarchical levels: participants are able to communicate with each other. Products are part of the network. See also

The International data spaces (IDS) Reference Architecture Model (IDS-RAM) sets the standard for building data-driven ecosystems, products and services. (see - in particular )