Periodic Reporting for period 2 - BOREALIS (Borealis ? the 3A energy class Flexible Machine for the new Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing on next generation of complex 3D metal parts.)

Summary
The value of BOREALIS is represented by an innovative machine that combine different technologies in a single solution to deliver true-net-shape products through a real-one-step process with an unprecedented material usage efficiency and energy efficiency. Borealis allowed to...\n\nThe value of BOREALIS is represented by an innovative machine that combine different technologies in a single solution to deliver true-net-shape products through a real-one-step process with an unprecedented material usage efficiency and energy efficiency. Borealis allowed to work on developments for an advanced 3D laser scanner, a novel laser source system, a new process that combinestwo different laser based additive and subtractive Technologies, a new vision system and a dedicated CAx chain for the control of the process.BOREALIS is equipped with an innovative flexible revolver head that enables blending multiple powders of different materials and with different particles dimensions (micro and nano powders) to enhance usage flexibility. Borealis machine and software infrastructure perform a closed loop monitoring of the process that can lead to go towards the approach of zero defect manufacturing. This it is enable also by a dedicated sensing system (camera and spectroscopy integrated system) for process parameters corrections elaborated and implemented at NC level. Borealis combines fast mechatronics, additive and subtractive laser processing in the largest AM machine ever built before, with a flexible redundant structure to accommodate extremely variable working cubes and deposition areas. Furtehr characteristics are: super light structure, three steps powder heating with energy loss recovering, high power with high beam quality laser source that allows power densities on the working area currently achievable with higher power lasers, fully adaptive process planning to minimize any energy loss. So Borealis can minimize powder losses by guaranteeing a controlled atmosphere in the operative region thanks to a shielded working space that encapsulates all ejected powders and protects them from oxygen contact. With a completely closed automatic in line CAx chain, CNC can select the Best Available Processing Strategy and machine settings. Thanks to the combination of two highly efficient laser sources and a fast scanning head, Borealis aims to the highest throughput rate with unprecedented surface quality (submicron rugosity).\n\nThe set of activities which have been addressed during the project are the following:
Definition of user requirements from the aerospace, motorsport and medtech industries and identification of a set of use cases scenarios
Based on the use cases, a set of round robin parts has been identified whose objective was to embrace the final product challenges in a path of increasing complexity
Reference framework of the product, hybrid process and equipment information which will support the future creation of a database.
Design of hybrid processes (deposition and ablation).
Development of an advanced hybrid optical chain for the delivery of both high power CW laser for deposition and pulsed laser for precise ablation
Design of an innovative nozzle with an external shielding gas to reduce the divergence of the powder jet and shrink the powder spot size
Precise control and shape of the melt pool thanks to the development of an innovative deposition strategy, make feasible by the design of the scan head able to cover large area at high frequency in multiple scans
Customization of a high speed 3D scan head for high power and high accuracy processes for both CW and pulsed laser, equipped with a ccd camera for closed loop monitoring
Design of an innovative gas powder feeding system with independent regulation of each single nozzle in terms of powder and flow rates
Development of an interoperable vision system composed by fixed and movable cameras for real time product and process monitoring
Customization of a redundant machine architecture with 7 Degrees of Freedom DoF, 4 on the deposition head and 3 on the machine portal
specifications of the automation architecture and of the dynamic optimization algorithms for process and motion redistribution
Design of an innovative depo-head equipped with 4 nozzles for high throughput
New gantry structure that allows the building of large part dimensions and possibility to blend multiple materials thanks to the independent regulations of each single nozzle equipped in the depo-head
Design of an innovative gas powder feeding system with independent regulation of each single nozzle in terms of powder and flow rates
Design of CAX chain for control and closed loop in a machine with high DoF\n\nAs mentioned in section 2.1 of the DoA, three level of impacts were expected by the Borealis project and they are still valid. They are:
? Impact on new generation aerospace, medtech and motorsport complex products; on efficient additive and subtractive laser based manufacturing sectors; on next generation of machinery.

The following paragraph describes the impact of the Borealis machine for the three categories mentioned above:
- Technical impact:
? Flexibility towards multiple technologies, i.e. additive and subtractive manufacturing laser based tools embedded in the same system;
? High energy efficient hybrid laser source module
? Achievement of cutting edge manufacturing thresholds of accuracy, reliability and speed
? Achievement of high throughput associated to a high powder efficiency;
? In line process monitoring and closed loop control of the process;
? Dynamic optimization of the deposition strategy to keep the machine performance on target;
? Increased productivity compared to traditional AM machine thanks to the new feeding system design.
? Availability of 11 Degrees of Freedom for an AM machine (X,Y,Z main axis (3)- x,y axis on the head (2) ? a,b tilting axis on the head (2) ? c,d external axis of the rototilt table (2) ? u,v axis of the galvo scan head (2);
? High energy efficiency thanks to the innovative strategy for the control of the melt pool with the use of the galvo scan head;
? Independent regulation of each single nozzle;
? Possibility to recover from mis-deposition errors and reduce number of faulty parts thanks to the innovative vision system and closed loop recovery strategy;
? Reduction of reworks for the same piece, thus allowing reduction of total cycle time;

- Scientific impact:
? New Ph.Ds. and Specializing courses at
POLITO in cooperation with PI,PE,IRIS,AVIO: ?Second Level Specializing Master in AM? with the hiring of seven young researchers
TNO: Phd on thermal modeling of AM process
LMS: PhD on AM modelling
LMS: PhD on AM process planning
? Involvement of 17 among young researchers and Ph.D. students in the Borealis activities.
? 10+ publications in International Journals and Conference papers;
? 5+ Oral Presentations at major international academic conferences

- Environmental and social impact:
? Reduction of the energy and resources consumption thank to innovative deposition strategies;
? Compensation of the CO2 produced during the project with implant of a number of trees that ensures the carbon offset

- Commercial impact:
? Reduction of time to market of products;
? Unique Selling Point is the reduction of ramp up and of faulty parts in Borealis process thanks to the vision system architecture and the closed loop control of the process;
? Reduction of production cost of products.
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