Periodic Reporting for period 1 - CAxMan (Computer Aided Technologies for Additive Manufacturing)

Summary
For society, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has many advantages. Shapes that are hard or impossible to produce by subtractive manufacturing become feasible, AM reduces material consumption to a minimum while fulfilling the specifications. This does not only affect the costs of...\n\nFor society, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has many advantages. Shapes that are hard or impossible to produce by subtractive manufacturing become feasible, AM reduces material consumption to a minimum while fulfilling the specifications. This does not only affect the costs of the material used and the energy spent during manufacturing. For many components, also the lifetime cost is reduced. AM allows adaptation of the product to customers´ needs, local manufacturing, individual products and small product series.
The objectives of CAxMan are to establish cloud based Toolboxes, Workflows and a One Stop-Shop for interoperable CAx-technologies supporting the design, simulation and process planning for AM. More specifically the objectives are to establish analysis-based design approaches that reduce material usage, increase weight savings through internal cavities and voids, enhanced process planning that exploiting thermal and stress analysis.\n\nIn WP1 the Cloud infrastructure from CloudFlow has been adapted to the needs of CAxMan, and the CAxMan partners trained in how to implement workflows on the infrastructure. The first CAxMan specific workflows have been implemented.
In WP2 the tri-variate isogeometric representation (Finite Element Analysis based on B-splines from CAD) is augmented by introducing volume trimming thru surface structures. Further functionality is being developed to support numerical quadrature on the trimmed volumes to ensure close connection between isogeometric analysis and tri-variate isogeometric CAD. The work on volumetric subdivision for designing voids and cavities is progressing.
In WP3 specific processing workflows have been designed for a selection of AM technologies. The development of specific algorithms has started. During analysis, the dynamics of the material properties as additive production proceeds will be considered. A virtual version of the part as it will be produced by the printer will be passed on to the thermal-stress analysis module.
WP4 addresses numerical simulation using coupled thermo-mechanical analysis for Selective Laser Melting and the subsequent Heat Treatment for stress relief. The starting point is prior software for analysis (COMET). This uses a serial solver for the wire-feed Metal Deposition process with layer thickness almost 1 mm. For powder methods in CAxMan the thickness is reduced respectively to 300 µm and 60 µm for blown powder (LENS) and powder bed technologies (EOS/SLM).
WP5 has focused on requirements definition towards metrological inspection of parts manufactured by AM, measurement of the components and metrological quality process including the re-design after measurements. Measurements have been performed on the first prototypes manufactured by AM in CAxMan.
WP6 is focused on the subtractive manufacturing aspects of the CAxMan use cases. The partners NOVATRA and STAM have both made a full description of the technology currently used to produce their parts. In addition, the advantages of the CAxMan approach, coupling AM and subtractive manufacturing has been addressed.
WP7 has been focused on the use cases descriptions, and on the KPIs definition for the evaluation of CAxMan process. This includes detailed outlining and description of the identified KPIs together with the process for their measurement. Preparations have been done for the planned use cases prototypes.
WP8 has studied digital business innovation approaches and business models to understand the as-is situation among the CAxMan partners. A survey was performed to identify CAxMan value propositions from perspective of each beneficiary. This identified 32 possible exploitation items. From this initial individual and joint business models for each partner have been described. This was followed by identification of intellectual property rights. 92 IPs (including Background IPs) have been identified. The initial 32 initial exploitation items have been reviewed and revised resulting in a Product and Services Portfolio consists of 25 product and services: 5 workflows; 7 software as services; 4 infrastructure components as services; 9 consulting and training services.
WP9 is focusing on dissemination of the results from CAxMan. In the first 18 months, the focus has been on communicating the CAxMan approach for digital support of Additive Manufacturing to the RTD-community, FoF-community and to industry. As most tangible results of CAxMan will emerge during the second half of CAxMan the major dissemination and outreach activity will be concentrated in the last 18-month period of CAxMan.\n\nCAxMan delivers Cloud services for AM interoperable with standards, aimed at complementing other available digital solutions for AM. The CAxMan solutions are based on a tri-variate trimmed isogeometric CAD-model representation that opens up for significant increased flexibility as tri-variate representation allows continuously varying material properties.
In CAxMan we have formalized a novel annotation mechanism that correlates design geometry and STL tessellation thus opening for feedback in case of incompatibility and problems. This potentially enables fully interoperable design-production environments for AM. In CAxMan we consider the slices and the printing parameters as the sole source of information for AM. We produce a virtual model by extruding the slices to mimic the physical printing process. This allows comparing the nominal geometry with the object as it assumed to be printed potentially reducing the number of iterations needed to converge to a successful print.
The possibility to predict the mechanical and thermal behavior of a component produced by AM is a great advantage for pushing forward the use of the 3D printing technology. Both distortions and residual stresses induced by the manufacturing process can be predicted with good accuracy using the software now under development in CAxMan.
For the NUGEAR use case several potential improvements of the gearbox are address: Decrease the manufacturing cost and time; Allow perfect balance of nutating parts without manufacturability constraints; Reduction of parts weight through addition of voids in the volume of the gears.
The performances of the Injection Mould use case we see: Optimised design of the cooling system and of the designable shapes in general, without manufacturability constraints; Weight optimisation by creating a dedicated ?structural mesh?, outside of which material is not necessary; Material saving in stock definition.
CAxMan contributes to the development of the ISO10303-242 and ISO10303-209 STEP CAD standards to incorporate the needs and developments require
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Computer Aided Technologies for Additive Manufacturing
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